Joseph Nye, a political scientist, defines soft power as the capacity of a nation to influence others by appeal and persuasion rather than coercion. In recent years, the idea of soft power has been widely applied to emerging economies, which are countries with developing economies that are gaining influence on the international scene.
Cultural influence is a crucial part of soft power in emerging economies. There are an increasing number of internationally recognized artists, filmmakers, and other cultural creators in many emerging economies with a rich cultural heritage. These cultural exports can highlight the nation's ideals, history, and identity on the international stage, enhancing its allure and impact. The popularity of Bollywood films in many countries, for instance, has increased India's soft power. Similarly, the success of K-pop and K-dramas has helped increase South Korea's soft power.
Latin America boasts several assets in terms of soft power, including its diverse natural beauty, rich cultural heritage, vibrant cuisine, talented athletes, artists, and entrepreneurs, and strong economic growth prospects. While the political and institutional factors impacting soft power in Latin America are complex, reforms to political and institutional structures are necessary to harness its potential fully. Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Colombia are among Latin America’s top nations with the highest level of soft power. In addition, cooperation and improvements to public institutions and administrative efficiency can further enhance Latin America’s soft power.
In rising economies, economic influence is a crucial component of soft power. As the economies of these nations continue to expand, they are becoming increasingly significant trading partners and investors on the international stage. This could result in a more substantial impact on international organizations and trade discussions. For instance, the Belt and Road Initiative has been viewed as a means for China to impose its economic influence in other regions of the world.
Emerging economies are also utilizing soft power to form global alliances and partnerships. Diplomacy, aid, and other forms of international collaboration can be used to achieve this goal. For instance, China's Belt and Road Initiative has been viewed as a means of forming relationships and alliances with other nations to foster mutual economic growth.
Lastly, many emerging economies engage in education to enhance their soft power. This may include sponsoring scholarships for international students to study in the country and building international campuses at domestic universities. China has established Confucius Institutes worldwide, for instance, to promote the study of the Chinese language and culture.
Soft power in emerging economies comprises cultural influence, economic influence, global relationships, and investment in education. As these nations continue to expand and gain influence on the international scene, they will likely rely more on soft power to fulfill their foreign policy objectives.
Our research, co-authored with James Rajasenkar (Morningside University) and Jorge Alcaraz (Universidad de Monterrey), highlights the significance of understanding the power dynamics in global changes. In this study, we aimed to understand the relationship between the indicators of soft power and the dynamics of inward and outward foreign direct investment in the framework of emerging economies.
Our findings supported the hypothesis that business, cultural, and diplomacy conditions positively and significantly affect foreign direct investment. The applied model showed that government conditions explain 63.8% of the variation in business conditions, and business, culture, and diplomacy jointly explain 62.4% of the variation of inward foreign direct investment, which in turn explains 64.9% of the variation in outward foreign direct investment.
This research demonstrates the critical role of government, business, culture, and diplomacy conditions in promoting outward foreign direct investment from emerging economies. Furthermore, using soft power skills to attract investors and encourage investments has been shown to be an effective way for emerging economies to pursue their national interests. In conclusion, power dynamics are crucial to comprehend global changes, and understanding the institutional framework in different regions is essential to promoting foreign direct investment.
The author is a professor of the Department of Strategy and Leadership at EGADE Business School.